DNA-Untersuchung der Nachkommen des Großfürsten Gediminas von Litauen und Rurik
„DNA-Untersuchung der Nachkommen des Großfürsten Gediminas von Litauen und Rurik“, in: WIKIa Szlachta [Onlinefassung]; URL: http://www.de.szlachta.wikia.com/, Zugang .. . .. . 201. .
Y-DNA (37 + 6 additional markers) database including Rurikid and Gediminid princes and also those males who suspect that they descend either from Rurik (the 1st Russian prince, 9th century), or from Gedimin (The Grand Duke of Lithuania, 13th cent.). База У-ДНК хромосомы Рюриковичей и Гедиминовичей. Baza chromosomu Y (Y-DNA) Rurykowiczów i Gedyminowiczów.
Hier ist die Untersuchung der Nachkommen des Großfürsten Gediminas von Litauen und Rurik (derzeit bestehen im WIKIa technische Probleme bezüglich einer vernünftigen farbigen Präsentation der Ergebnisse, wie sie im Original vorliegt. Nachdem diese gelöst werden, wird diese provisorische Datei abgelöst werden).
Zusammenfassend kann man festhalten:
1. Rurik und Gediminas entfernte Kusinen waren. Damit wurde von einigen polnischen Historikern vertretene Hypothese falsifiziert, dass Gediminas ein Dienstmannen war und sich an die Macht geputscht habe,
2. Fürsten Chowański des Wappens Pogoń Litewska tatsächlich von Gediminas abstammen und andere Hypothesen wie die vom 1996 verstorbenen Prof. Chowański aus Konigsberg nicht zutreffen.
Rurikid Dynasty DNA Project http://www.familytreedna.com/public/rurikid/
Contains currently the following surnames,
Bariatynski, Belosselsky-Belozersky, Czetwertynski, Drucki (Droutskoy), Gagarin, Gorchakov, Khilkov, Korybut-Woroniecki, Kropotkin, Kubensky, Kurbatsky (Kurbsky ?), Lobanov-Rostovsky, Lvov, Mozarowski (and variants), Mozhaysky, Myshetsky, Niewmierzycki (and variants), Obolensky, Ossowiecki, Poscharsky, Putyatin, Puzyna, Rostowsky, Rzhevsky, Shahovskoi, Solomin, Szuyski, Tolloczko, Ushakov, Vadbolsky and Volkonsky, and
Golitsin (Galitzine), Chowański (Khovansky), Chartorisky (Czartoryski), Trubetskoy (Trubecki), Urban(owicz), Svistunov, Cuthie (Jakutowicz), Davidenas (Dawidowicz ?) and Barteit.
However, not all of them were found to be genuine descendants of Rurik or of Gedimin, respectively. Besides, it was discovered that a couple of Volkonsky, Obolensky and Bariatynsky princes belong to Slavic (genetic haplogroup R1a1) branch.
Thanks to Russian Nobility DNA Project which tested one of the Volkonsky princes who belongs to the N1c1 haplogroup and is well matching other Rurikids, we can say that by all means a NPE event occurred in case of some of these princes.
Besides, thanks to this, i.e. Rurikid project, we can now say that Rurik was a historical person who was born on the Roslagen seashore (slightly north of Stockholm, Sweden). However, he was of Finno-Ugrian descent (haplogroup N1c1 (earlier described as N3a)). Although all of well matching N1c1 Rurikid princes are descended from Yaroslav Mudry (978 – 1054), it seems that his ancestors including Rurik (b. ab. 820 – 876) himself, also belonged to this haplogroup.
A group of Swedes, whose ancestors lived in or close to Uppsala, and whose genetic haplotypes are very close to these of the Rurikids, seems to be confirming the theory that Rurik, in fact, originated from Sweden. Prince Piotr Szuyski is also of Slavic descent (R1a1). However, he is neither matching the mentioned Volkonskys/Obolenskys, nor he is matching other R1a1 Rurikid princes. Prince Kropotkin is really descended from Rurik. However, by no means is he descended from the princes of Smolensk. His princely branch needs to be reconsidered again. Gedimin, the Grand Duke of Lithuania, and Rurik the Viking chieftain and the 1st Russian prince, were very distant cousins. They shared a common male ancestor ab. 2200 years ago.
It is not clear whether the noble Urbanowicz, Jakutowicz and Svistunov (Swistun, Swistunow) families are illegitimate descendants of Gedimin, or if they rather belong to Gediminid branches that were forgotten by genealogists.
Prince Jerzy Czartoryski of Canada decided to have his Y-DNA tested in spite of what historians speculate(d) about the descent of his princely branch. It is believed that his G...Grandmother, the princess Izabella Czartoryska (nee Fleming) had her 1st son with the Rurikid prince Nikolai Vasilievich Repnin, while it was Armand-Louis de Gontaut-Biron, Duc de Lauzun, who fathered the 2nd son, Konstanty, from whom Prince Jerzy descends. Prince Jerzy was found to be descended from a Germanic tribe (R1b1). He can still be descended from the French, since the majority of them are of Germanic origin. What counts here is that Prince Jerzy inherited the title of Prince, as well as family tradition, from his legal ancestors, the Czartoryski princes. On the other hand, however, provided that he really is descended from the Gontaut-Birons, this duly means that he is a genetic descendant of this old French family, which has roots at least as far back as the 12th century.
Prince Stanislaw Antoni Czetwertynski was found to belong to the I2a2 haplogroup. By no means is he descended from Rurik. His genetic haplotype is typical for the native population of the Belarussian-Ukrainian Polissiya region. This can also mean that Prince Tur(e), who founded the dynasty of the Turov-Pinsk princes, wasn’t at all descended from Rurik.
Results on this page are freely available to anyone who wishes to use them for comparative and non-commercial purposes, also provided that a link to this web site is created.
This database can be useful for many males. By using this in a simple way they can check whether they have (or haven’t) descended from Rurik. It was also believed that the Gediminid princes were descended from Rurik on the Polotsk branch. However, the preliminary results do suggest that this is not really so, although Gedimin originated from Baltic Finno-Ugrians. Another idea would be to create the so-called modal Y-DNA pattern for Rurik, as well as for Gedimin. However, this may be possible later, when some more test results will become available. Nevertheless, the preliminary modal haplotypes for Rurik and Gedimin have been created.
The tests were performed with the Family Tree DNA Co. http://www.familytreedna.com/ in the group program “Rurikid Dynasty DNA Project”. 37 characteristic markers are displayed in columns 1 to 37, respectively. The larger is the number of matching markers, the closer is kinship of the two males. If the markers are not perfectly matching, just for the sake of readability they have been displayed with different colours in reference to the modal haplotypes of Rurik and of Gedimin. The more the background is becoming orange and red, the larger is the positive genetic distance, while the more the background is becoming green and blue, the larger is the negative genetic distance in each of the markers, respectively. This is shown in the label below. However, the (total) genetic distance from either the modal Rurik or Gedimin in all compared markers should not exceed a couple of units. If this is really so, it means that another tested male is their (distant) cousin. This is marked with green (Rurikids, Gediminids), or light green (Proto-Rurikids, Proto-Gediminids).
The database also includes a certain number of other people, especially the Finns belonging to the N1c1 haplogroup, which are neither related by blood with Rurik, nor with Gedimin. They have been marked with light blue, and described as being “Distant cousins”. These results are kept in the project for a particular reason : no one still knows from where the ancestors of Rurik arrived in Sweden, as well as from where the ancestors of Gedimin arrived in the Baltic countries (possibly this was Povolzhe in Russia). On the basis of genetic distances, as well as on the basis of WTY (Walk Through the Y chromosome) results, one can now anticipate that the Finno-Karelian (L550-) and others (L550+) (especially those of the Rurikids and Gediminids) separated already in Siberia ab. 4500 – 6000 years ago. However, these tests are by no means completed to the point that one can make any final conclusion here.
Mutation rates in markers marked with pink background are larger (0.003 to 0.005), and those marked with violet background are extremely large (above 0.005) compared with an average mutation rate (which is something like 0.0024). However, in the so-called genetic calculator one can also use different mutation rates in each of the marker panels. Estimated more precisely by the FTDNA Co., the average mutation rates are as follows : 0.00399 (markers 1 – 12), 0.00481 (markers 13 – 25), and 0.00748 (markers 26 - 37), respectively (http://www.mymcgee.com/tools/yutility.html#MutationRate) . And this is also clear evidence that the markers 26 – 37 are most important in genetic genealogy.
When comparing the markers 1 –25 one can only SUSPECT that the two tested males might be related by blood if their markers are matching. By ALL MEANS one needs to check the markers 26 – 37, and especially the fast mutating markers like CDYa, CDYb and DYS 570, to be absolutely CERTAIN that, IN FACT, he IS related by blood with another man. A lot of Y-DNA test results do appear on the Y-search.org database (http://www.ysearch.org/) when the two males are e.g. perfectly matching on their first 12 markers; a certain mismatch, however small, can appear on the 2nd panel (markers 13 - 25); while a considerable mismatch on the 3rd panel (markers 26 – 37) is clear evidence that they are not related by blood at all (in historical times – 50-60 generations ago).
Thanks to this project I can verify real mutation rates, and these have been displayed below. The rates are calculated per the entire 37 markers haplotypes and per century. The time that passed by is a difference between the year in which the Y-DNA tests were performed, and the year when the common male ancestor (CMA) was born.